Cómo “comerse” un patrimonio: construir bienes inmateriales agroalimentarios entre directivas técnicas y empresariado patrimonial

Bortolotto, Chiara . Cómo “comerse” un patrimonio: construir bienes inmateriales agroalimentarios entre directivas técnicas y empresariado patrimonial. [en línea]. Revista Andaluza de Antropología, Num. 12, marzo de 2017. http://www.revistaandaluzadeantropologia.org/uploads/raa/n12/bortoloto.pdf, pp. 144-166. ISSN: 2174-6796

Este artículo explora el creciente dominio del patrimonio cultural inmaterial alimentario en el marco de la Convention de la UNESCO para la salvaguarda del patrimonio cultural inmaterial. El análisis traza la fricción entre los principios y objetivos de la Convención y las expectativas iniciales de los primeros proyectos de patrimonialización en la esfera alimentaria. A partir de la observación etnográfica de la producción del expediente de la “Comida gastronómica de los franceses” se revisará el proceso de adecuación de los proyectos locales al dispositivo internacional poniendo así al día el poder performativo de las directivas técnicas elaboradas a menudo informalmente para alinear las solicitudes de los Estados con las prioridades de la Convención. Esta experiencia técnica permite separar los aspectos culturales dentro del sector de la alimentación de otras facetas, incluyendo la comercial, no obstante orgánicamente relacionados con este campo. Si los documentos presentados a la Unesco se esfuerzan por eliminar estos temas polémicos, siguen siendo el centro de las preocupaciones de los actores sociales y políticos, y se encuentran actualmente en el centro del debate sobre la relación entre la salvaguardia del patrimonio cultural inmaterial y el desarrollo sostenible puestos en cuestión por las implicaciones del uso neoliberal de la cultura como un recurso.

This article explores the field of food-related intangible cultural heritage in the framework of the Unesco Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. The analysis outlines the frictions between the Convention’s principles and objectives and the initial expectations of the first heritage projects in the food realm. Grounded on the ethnographic observation of the making of the nomination file of the «Gastronomic meal of the French», the article examines the complex encounter between local priorities and endeavours on one side and international norms and procedures on the other. The tension arising from this encounter sheds light on the agency of technical directives informally put forward by international organisations to harmonise the States’ requests within global governance apparatuses. In our case technical expertise isolates foodways’ cultural aspects from other features, in particular commercial interests, despite their organic integration within this field. Even if the nomination files submitted to Unesco try to clear these controversial matters, the latter stay high among the concerns of social and political actors. Currently at the core of the raising debate on the relationship between the safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage and sustainable development within Unesco, ICH’s economic potential question the implications of the neoliberal uses of culture as a resource.

http://www.revistaandaluzadeantropologia.org

“Collaborative dilemmas” in the age of uncertainty – Virtual roundtable on Allegralab

Against the backdrop of increasing projectization and casualization of research, academic insecurity, and existential anxiety for new generations of researchers, collaborative research with international organizations, state agencies or NGOs takes on the corollary function of providing professional status and remunerated jobs that universities do not offer to the growing academic precariat.

A virtual roundtable is now open on Allegralab to interrogate the effects of collaboration between anthropologists and their elite interlocutors on research design, practice and outcomes.

If you are ready to to share your anxiety and disclose your collaborative dilemmas, please join the conversation. Write a comment or send a detailed response to submissions@allegralaboratory.net. Any kind of contribution is welcome!

 

Placing ICH, owning a tradition, affirming sovergnity: the role of spatiality in the practice of the ICH Convention

Chiara Bortolotto, « Placing ICH, owning a tradition, affirming sovergnity: the role of spatiality in the practice of the ICH Convention », in P. Davis et M. Stefano The Routledge Companion to Intangible Cultural Heritage. London & New York, Routledge, 2016: 46-58

The 2003 Convention has opened up new scenarios in the representation of heritage as it defines it in ethnographic rather than topographic terms (Hafstein, 2007, p. 93). By positioning ICH expressions in relation to communities rather than places, the 2003 Convention shifts away from territorial definitions: ‘intangible cultural heritage means the practices, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills – as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts and cultural spaces associated therewith – that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage […]’ (UNESCO, 2003, Article 2). In avoiding a territorial definition of communities,1  it establishes an ‘open’ relationship between heritage, communities and place whereby community membership is not ‘naturally’ established by local roots, thus promoting dynamic representations of culture and identity. This, however, clashes with the political mechanisms of the Convention, based on negotiations between States bent on promoting national interests, as well as with the identity and economic uses social actors make of heritage, often depending on precise geographical delimitation of cultural resources. In this chapter, I explore the tension arising from these two ways of making sense of space based on an ethnographic study of the international arena in which the 2003 Convention is implemented.

Les politiques de l’UNESCO, quelles répercussions sur les projets de restauration ?

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Institut national du patrimoine, Séminaire de recherche

30 janvier 2017, INP, 2 rue Vivienne, 75002 Paris, salle Champollion, 18h15

Chiara Bortolotto, Anthropologue, responsable du projet UNESCO frictions : heritage-making across global governance, et Claire Bosc-Tiessé, historienne de l’art, chercheur au CNRS, affiliée à l’IMAF (institut des mondes africains), co-directrice du projet archéologique et historique « Lalibela »

UNESCO FRICTIONS : explorer la fabrique globale du patrimoine culturel immatériel

Cette intervention présente le projet UNESCO frictions : heritage-making across global governance. A partir d’une discussion des travaux existants sur l’Unesco et ses effets, nous allons introduire la démarche adoptée dans ce projet collectif visant à suivre la vie sociale de la Convention pour la sauvegarde du patrimoine culturel immatériel dès débats diplomatiques dans les salles de réunion de l’Unesco à la mise en œuvre de projets patrimoniaux à l’échelle locale dans trois pays (Grèce, Brésil et Chine) choisis comme études de cas en fonction de la diversité de leurs régimes patrimoniaux nationaux. Pour dépasser l’opposition entre « norme globale » et « réactions locales » et explorer la fabrique globale du patrimoine, nous proposons d’interroger la tension créative qui surgit lorsque des régimes de patrimonialité spécifiques doivent se confronter aux principes proposés par une norme internationale.

Master « Ethnological expertise Intangible Heritage »

Roda de Capoeira in Salvador, Bahia. Photo: Pierre VergerThe University of Toulouse Jean Jaurès has launched a new master programme. UNESCO frictions is part of this project.

Here is the web site of the master

On November 23-24 Morena Salama, postdoctoral researcher at UNESCO frictions, will give the seminar:

Inventorying, proclaiming, assisting and promoting: the complementary lines of action of the Brazilian safeguarding regime.

The Brazilian safeguarding policy started to be structured just before the drafting of UNESCO’s 2003 Convention for the safeguarding of ICH. This pioneering role rendered a different focus to the Brazilian safeguarding regime. Instead of targeting into the international heritarization, such as the inscription of elements in the Representative List of the 2003 Convention, the Brazilian state has been concentrating its efforts on the proclamation of the Brazilian cultural references as National Cultural Heritage (a process called locally as “Registry”) and on the implementation of safeguarding measures after the national heritarization takes place.

By the time Brazil ratified the 2003 Convention, the participative shift introduced by this international treaty found a fertile terrain to be developed. Since then the main lines of action of the Brazilian safeguarding regime – inventorying, proclaiming, assisting and promoting, – have been implemented aiming at increasing the level of participation of the bearers’ communities, so they can become the “protagonists” of their own safeguarding process.

This course explores how this participative approach has been put into practice in the country. Initially these main lines of action will be examined as complementary steps of the same safeguarding process. Subsequently several concrete cases will be analysed and compared with the view of identifying how the bearer’s communities are involved in each case. The safeguarding processes to be presented are: the craft of ceramic pans of Goiabeiras; the Kusiwa graphic art, the samba de roda; the craft of baianas de acarajé; the Taper of Our Lady of Nazareth, the Yaokwa ritual, the capoeira and the fabrication of the viola de cocho.